1901. Hist.) Anthropol. Rev. Small-bodied varieties comprise gibbon and siamang Large-bodied hominoids are Pongo (orangutan), Gorilla, Pan (chimpanzees and bonobos) and … The big toe of Kenyapithecus differs from those of other Miocene homi- noids because of its adaptations for a semiterrestrial way of life. New hominoid skull material from the Miocene of Pakistan. The Hague: Mouton, Crusafont M, Hurzeler J. In Classification and Human Evolution, ed. New insight into the actual morphology and adaptations of the Miocene apes has in some cases revitalized interest in understanding the broad adaptive context for the evolution of diagnostic features within the modern ape and human clade. Acad. Vert. Prehist. 33a, pp. 1993. Anew Mio- cene small-bodied ape from Kenya. H Vagtborg, 2:23-50. 1980. J.Phys. 3:l-27, Lewis GE. The dental arcades of middle to late Miocene large-bodied apes closely resem- ble those of living great apes in that both are rectangular. 1-28. INTRODUCTION Two hominoid species. The earliest australopith fossils come from 6. The diversity of apes seems to have declined during the African middle Miocene (15-12 ma), with genera adapted for consuming soft fruit (e.g. The oldest known apes derive from the latest Oligocene (26 ma) site of Losidok in northern Kenya (32) and from the earliest Miocene (23 ma) site of Meswa Bridge in western Kenya (8). Hum. 1992. 50:136-49, 113.Shipman P, Walker A, Van Couvering JAH, Hooker PJ. The Kenyapithecus proximal humerus comprehen- sively lacks modern hominoid features related to agile climbing and facultative arm-swinging (88). Further hominoid postcra- nial specimens from the Late Miocene Na- gri Formation of Pakistan. The first unambiguous occurrence of a hanging shoulder joint with a me- dially rotated humeral head similar to that of modern apes was discovered in. J. Hum. Am. Evol. Anthro- pol. A large number of mammalian fossils have been found in the Chiang Muan Mine, including the earliest known hominoid from the Miocene of Southeast Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Contrib. 131.Ward SC, Brown B. New ramapithecines and Pliouithecus from the lower Pliocene of ~udaban~a, in north-eastern Hungary. Subnasal al- veolar morphology and the systematic po- sition of Sivapithecus. 4:4448, Cunningham DJ. n. A member of the Hominoidea. The juvenile skull specimen from the Pliocene of Hudieliangzi (53, 140) and Pleistocene Gigantopithecus are the only apparent survivors of this radia- tion. Ill. Univ. 26:203-37, 110.Sarich VM. 1967. Sci. Fossil soils, grasses, and carbon isotopes from Fort Ternan, Kenya: Grass- land or woodland? A major goal of paleoanthropology is to understand the timing and nature of the emergence of humans (members of the Family Hominidae, commonly referred to as hominids) from a generalized stock that was ancestral to both apes and humans (members of the Superfamily Hominoidea, or hominoids). Further examination of the distribution of zygomatic robusticity and development of zygomaxillary foramina is required before such features are taken to be specifically characteristic of the Pongo clade. 1967. However, until more substantial skull and especially limb bone fossils of these genera are found, these apparent affinities must remain tantalizing possibilities. 1990. The humerus shafts of Kenyapithecus, Griphopithecus, and Sivapithecus are more similar to Old World monkeys than to apes; they have a strong deltopectoral crest and a distinctive forward-bending of the upper portion (77, 102, 139). Hisp. Nature 295:232-34, No tags found. 1992. Male upper canines of Kenyapithecus and Sivapithecus are very robust and are inferred to have been medially in- clined and externally rotated as in modern great apes, and unlike those of Proconsul and Dryopithecus (133). Where have Miocene hominoid fossils been found? The Miocene Hominoidea of East Africa. Evol. Die Primatenfunde aus der miozanen Spaltenfiillung von Neudorf an der March (Devinska Nova Ves), Tsche- choslowakei. Citing Literature. Such adaptations may have characterized the last common ancestor of Kenyapi- thecus and modern hominoids or may have been acquired independently by Miocene hominoids and the ancestors of modern apes in response to similar dietary requirements. The angle formed between the tooth row and the long axis of the symphysis is 30-40 degrees in Kenyapithecus but is significantly larger in Proconsul, Sivapithecus, and Ouranopithecus, all of which have more verti- cally oriented symphyseal axes (88). J. Phys. ground for Man, ed. In press, Morbeck ME. Am. In what part of the world have Miocene hominoid fossils been found? ActaAnthropol. 27: 385-94, Begun DR, Moya-Sola S, Kohler M. 1990. J. Hum. In fact, knowledge that fossils accumulated in a forest, woodland, or grassland environment is unin- formative with regard to substrate preference (i.e. 87:291-310, Begun DR. 1994. 369404, Moya Sola S, Kohler M. 1993. Many of the tooth and lower jaw features used by various authors to argue that Kenyapithecus and Sivapithecus are members of the great ape and human clade (e.g. J. Phys. Am. However, recent studies of several new limb bones of Kenyapithecus from Maboko Island and Sivapi- thecus from the Siwaliks have done a great deal to clarify the relationships of these large-bodied hominoids. J. Hum. In this feature Kenyapithecus resembles semiterrestrial vervet monkeys and macaques (88) and differs from modern apes and arboreal monkeys, which have a humeral head that projects above the level of the greater tubercle. 1. The large-bodied hominoid from Uganda dates to at least 20.6 million years ago and thus represents the oldest known hominoid sharing these derived … The fossil is the property of the University of Thessaloniki, Greece (catalogue number XIR-1). Answer: E. Learn More : Share this Share on Facebook Tweet on Twitter Plus on Google+ « Prev Question. _______ relies on identifying changes in the orientation of the earth's geomagnetic poles. Afi: (BI: Mus. Areassessment of the relationship between later Miocene and subsequent Hominoidea. The capitate (a wrist bone) of Sivapithecus is fundamentally different from that of modern hominoids at its proximal end, indicating a mid-carpal joint unlike that of modern apes and humans (105). Proc. J. Hum. J. Phys. 1975. Abh. Sci. In Paleoanthropology, Morphology, and Pa- leoecology, ed. 49: 42740, Y. Afi (BI: Mus. In the late Early Miocene, some relatively primitive type of hominoids left Africa, and entered into Europe through Anatolia with the oldest hominoid record in Europe being 16.5Ma. The first and primary task of an archaeologist at a paleoanthropological site is to 3. The forelimb skeleton and associated remains ofProconsul africanus. “This is a landmark discovery which represents a significant southern range extension of Miocene hominoids in the Indian peninsula. Anthropol. In contrast, semiterre- stria1 and terrestrial Old World monkeys have abbreviated and postero- medially oriented medial epicondyles because of the reduction in the mass of the wrist and finger flexors (31, 59). On the mandible of, 116.Simons EL, Pilbeam DR. 1972. Eurasian Miocene hominoids seem to have undergone a marked decline at 7 ma. The unique shape of the Kenyapithecus lower jaw symphysis is related to its specialized lower incisors. J. Hum. Miocene hominoids from Pakistan. J. Phys. The primate and other fauna from Fort Ternan, Kenya. New hominoid specimens from the middle Miocene site at kasalar, Turkey. 1971. In contrast, living hominoid humerus shafts are straight. In addition to studies concentrating on family tree relationships, there have been several reconstructions of the environments in which Miocene ape fossils are found (10, 33, 60, 113, 134). Medial epicondyles known for other Miocene apes are more medially directed, indicative of an arboreal habitus, unlike the semiterrestrial habitus inferred for Kenyapithecus. J. Phys. The origin of man. J. In Evolution ofAfrican Mammals, ed. The new interpretation based on recently discovered fossils leads us to believe that Kenyapithecus, Sivapithecus, and Dryopithecus do not belong to the modern hominoid radiation. Its pelvis differs from its contemporaries such as Dryopithecus, and multiple features may be linked with bipedality (Kohler and Moya-Sola, 1997). USA 58:14248, 112.Schultz AH. Hominoid remains from Miocene deposits in India and Pakistan have played a pivotal role in understanding the evolution of great apes and humans since they were first described in the 19 th Century. Vert. In Pongo, Pan, and most individuals of Gorilla, in contrast, the incisive opening is constricted, forming a true incisive canal, and the subnasal alveolar process "overrides the anterior edge of the hard palate, producing an overlapping relationship between these two elements" (133). Resembling a human. Information resulting from these new finds has radically changed our understanding of the relationships of Miocene and recent apes. This feature has been suggested to be correlated with quadru- pedalism in primates (95). GL1 Isaac, ER, Barry JC. Although Miocene hominoids appear not to be members of the modern ape and human clade, their morphology helps us to determine which features are primitive or derived for Hominidae, and how primitive hominoid features retained by hominids (such as thick molar enamel) may have first evolved. 1978. According to its discoverers, the facial skeleton of Ouranopithecus exhibits a brow ridge that is "large but not projecting like those of the gorilla or chimpanzee" (40:713). J.Phys. Reconstruc- tion of the dental arcades of Ramapithecus wickeri. An intermediate pattern, with an incisive aperture that is not as large as that of Old World monkeys nor as small as that of orangutans and chimpanzees, combined with minimal or no overlap of the front edge of the palatal process of the maxilla and the back edge of the subnasal alveolar process, is seen in the early Miocene ape Rang- wapithecus (132) and some individuals of Hylobates (91) and Gorilla (133). Anthro- pol. https://quizlet.com › 331647082 › anthro-chapter-8-quiz-part-1-flash-cards 1974. 1988. Hominoid evolution and hominid origins. Femora of Proconsul are somewhat more robust with slightly larger femoral heads than those of Kenyapithecus and Dryopithecus, but otherwise are similar in morphology (130). The bulk of this material consists of isolated teeth (Table 2), although several more complete craniodental and postcranial elements were also recovered. Because of their past scarcity, limb bone remains of middle-to-late Miocene large-bodied apes traditionally played a relatively minor role in discussions of their family tree relationships and adaptations (18). Functional morphology of the Miocene hominoid foot. Zool. Finally, hominid origins can be reconstructed by working forward in time from the perspective of Miocene hominoid fossils. Sinica 2:305-14, Harrison T. 1988. Basel 69:148, Ishida H. 1986. Modeling human ori- gins: Are we sexy because we're smart, or smart because we're sexy? Science 257:1929-33, 27. Their diets varied from young leaves to soft fruit (23, 24, 61), but their limb bone adaptations indicate that all forms for which limbs are presently known were predominantly quadrupedal and arboreal (75,76,78, 95, 104, 107). 1982. 1983. North America b. Australia c. Mexico d. South America e. Africa, Europe, and Asia. Wiss. 1986. Preliminary notes of new man-like apes from India. Instead, known frontal bones of Dryopithecus retain the distinct supraorbital costae reconstructed for the common ancestor of living Old World higher primates. Evol. Re- duction of the molar cingulum is considered to be a derived trait because all early Miocene apes, including Proconsul and Afropithecus, possess well- marked cingula. Am. 3. As- sociated jaws and limb bones of Limnopithecus macinnesi. Because molar cingula are more frequently preserved in Griphopithecus (4) and Dryopithecus from St. Gaudens (73), their teeth appear to be less derived toward the modern condition. 1988.Evolution of the ischi- a1 spine and of the pelvic floor in the Hominoidea. Univ. Am. Semantic issues have sometimes replaced more substantive ones. New postcra- nial fossils of Proconsul africanus andProconsul nyanzae. DR Begun, CV Ward, MD Rose. Recent claims that Dryopithecus is closely allied to the African ape clade (18-21) are based on a misunderstanding of frontal morphology and the distribution of subnasal con- figurations among extant and extinct hominoids. Knuckle-walking and the evolution of hominoid hands. 76: Le Gros Clark WE, Leakey LSB. Peabody Mus. Cladistic rela- tionships of extant and fossil hominoids. Am. 147-53. Tertiary Pongidae of East Africa: evolutionary relationships and taxonomy. Hominoid paleoprimatology. Edinburgh 46:283-311, De Bonis L, Bouvrain G, Geraads D, Koufos G. 1990. This is the first-ever discovery of a Sivapithecus fossil outside the Siwaliks. _______ relies on identifying changes in the orientation of the earth's geomagnetic poles. Palae- ontol. Nature, Andrews P, Hamilton WR, Whybrow PJ. 1987. New York: Aca- demic. Phylogenetic, paleode- mographic, and taphonomic implications of Mctoriaaithecus deciduous teeth from Maboko, ~enya. Anthropol. In Comparative Primate Biology: Systematics, Evolution and Anatomy, ed. In contrast, primates lacking tails or with very reduced tails, such as lorisines and hominoids, have ischial spines that are more proxi- mally located on the dorsal border of the ischium, at a level well proximal to the caudal rim of the acetabulum (89). The astragali of Proconsul (71), Afropithecus (76), Kenyapithecus (88), Dryopithecus (93), and Sivapithecus (107) are quite comparable. 1937. Most of the features shared by Sivapithecus and Pongo were thought to be derived (that is, evolu- tionarily new, as opposed to "primitive"). Hung. The upper incisors of Afropithecus, Kenyapithecus, Griphopithecus, and Sivapithecus are hetero- morphic; the central incisors are much broader and more spatulate than the smaller, more conical lateral incisors. Investigation in northern Kenya and new hominoid fossils. Homo of the Family Hominidae) than they are to the orangutan (111). J. Hum. Of or belonging to the superfamily Hominoidea, which consists of the lesser apes and the great apes including humans. However, this morphology is probably primi- tive for Old World higher primates because it is observed in Old World monkeys as well as in Proconsul (88). The field of Miocene hominoid paleoanthropology has profited from an unprecedented spate of new discoveries. Both continental and marine Miocene deposits are common worldwide with marine outcrops common near modern shorelines. Facial anatomy of Wctoriapithecus and its rzle- vance to the ancestral cranial morphology of Old World monkeys and apes. Fossil evidence for the dietary evolution of Old World monkeys. Consequently, Sivapithecus was interpreted as being related to the orangutan clade. The oldest known apes derive from the latest Oligocene (26 ma) site of Losidok in northern Kenya (32) and from the earliest Miocene (23 ma) site of Meswa Bridge in western Kenya (8). J. Hum. Natl. IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EMERGENCE OF TRUE HOMINIDS. Like African apes and humans, the eye sockets of Ouranopithecus are wider than they are tall and are rectangular in outline. Austin: Univ. Bull. The presence of these features in some Oligocene and Miocene Old World higher primates seems to be related to the combination of a small brain together with a large temporal muscle. Anthropol. These proposed relationships were contradicted by results from comparative immunology (i.e. 1976.Ramapithecus in Kenya and Turkey. 28: 16149, Andrews P, Van Couvering JAH. McCrossin ML. 33a, pp. Nut. Amolecular approach to the question of human origins. A comparable relationship between femur and humerus length is observed in terrestrial Old World monkeys as well as in Pan. associated mammal fauna from Irrawaddy Formation … The proximal and intermediate phalanges of most Miocene hominoids, including Proconsul, are long and curved, indicating use of arboreal substrates (95). In, McCrossin ML, Benefit BR. J. Sci. Fossil Mamm. Yearb. Of the large-bodied hominoids, substantial femoral remains are known for Proconsul, Kenyapithecus, and Dryopithecus (77,88, 108,130). Although this ridge is said to be a derived feature characteristic of knuckle-walkers (124), similar ridges are present in large semiterrestrial Old World monkeys, especially mandrills. Pilbeam DR. 1983. Nature 345:712-14, De Bonis L, Melentis J. In Human Origins: Louis Leakey and the East African Evidence, ed. J. Phys. C. R. Acad. Birchette MG. 1982. Hominoid evolution is an important research subject. 21: 295-306, Conroy GC. Evol. 59-86. It now seems likely that the last common ancestor of all living apes resembled great apes in some aspects of their skull shape and features. Postilla 57:l-10 115.Simons EL. Am. Introduction. In Proconsul the ischial spine is positioned on the dorsal edge of the ischium at a level several millimeters distal to the caudal rim of the acetabulum as in primates with mobile tails, including New World and Old World monkeys (89). Chicago: Aldine, 117.Simons EL, Pilbeam DR. 1978. S. Bes Akad. 1963. the molecular clock), which indicated that the last common ancestor of all living hominoids originated between 15 and 12 million years ago (ma), whereas humans diverged from gorillas and chimpanzees about 5 ma (1 10, 111). 95-122. Resemblance to the tooth shape of modern gorillas indicates that the 8-ma Samburu palate may be a potential candidate for membership in the African ape and human clade. The second approach uses the early hominid fossil record to infer the morphology and adaptations of hominid ancestors (83,84). Anthropol. Despite recent advancements, the fossil record of hominoid evolution con- tinues to be plagued by two major shortcomings: (a) an interval of time from roughly 11-5 ma (the Late Miocene) when hominoid remains are very poorly known from African deposits (52) and (b) a total absence of knowledge concerning the fossil record of our closest living relatives, the gorilla and the chimpanzee of equatorial Africa. Fossil Mamm. However, upper jaws of Kenyapithecus from Baragoi (57) and Dryopithecus from Rudabanya (132) resemble Rangwapithecus and some individuals of Hylobates and Gorilla in that the incisive opening is of moder- ately large caliber and the front edge of the palatal process of the maxilla is not overridden by the back edge of the subnasal alveolar process. In contrast, incontestable hominids in- cluding Australopithecus, Paranthropus and Horno exhibit varying degrees of dp3 molarization. A taxonomic revision of the small catarrhine primates from the Early Miocene of East Africa. RS Corruccini, RL Ciochon, pp. Nat. AMiocene gibbon-like primate from Shihhung, Kiangsu Province. Evol. Nature 229:408-9. Since 1986, a skull, lower jaws and a thousand teeth of hominoid have been found in Late Miocene in Xiaohe basin, Yuanmou County, Yunnan. A species of Dryopithecus was described recently from China, but the basis of this record is a very poorly preserved lower jaw collected from Wudu many years ago and originally identified as an Old World monkey (138). 1978. Otavipithecus: or how to build a better hominid-not. Largely owing to the scarcity of fossil hominoid remains from African deposits dating between 11 and 5 ma, we currently lack intermediate transitional forms between the semit- errestrial quadrupedalism of Kenyapithecus and the fully terrestrial bipedalism of Australopithecus. J. Phys. a. Stratigraphy b. Dendrochronology ... What is meant by the cultivation continuum? The absence of derived hominid traits in the Aramis dp3 indicates either that protohominids retained a conservative morphology similar to that of Kenyapithecus and Dryopithecus or that the Aramis remains do not represent a true hominid. 105.Rose MD. Anthropol. By dividing the trochlea from the capitulum, the lateral trochlear ridge frees the radius for motions independent from the ulna in a variety of elbow postures (95). Nature 274:249-51, Andrews P, Harrison T, Martin L, Pickford, Andrews P. Nesbit Evans E. 1979. Hist. Am. Anthropol. 1993. The significance of Otavipithecus namibiensis to interpretations of hominoid evolution. Middle and late Miocene large-bodied hominoids from Africa and Eurasia share a number of lower jaw and tooth traits that appear to be derived toward the great ape condition relative to early Miocene genera, including Proconsul. This may have been a factor in the origin and development of the hominid clade. 18: 493-97, Benefit BR, McCrossin ML. 88:499-514, Kordos L. 1987. Therefore, at least two appar- ently derived traits, presence of a supraorbital torus and of rectangular orbits, link Ouranopithecus with the African ape and human clade. 61:157-71 133.Ward SC. 1986. 10:49-72, 114.Simons EL. J. Sci. 1988. 33a. 9:7-25, McCown, pp. Int. Monogi: (Kyoto Univ.) In contrast to lower incisors of Proconsul, Dryopithecus, Sivapithecus, and Ouranopithecus, which are verti- cally implanted, those of Kenyapithecus lean forward strongly. 1995.Earliest Old Worldmon- key skull.Am. J. Humerus shafts of Proconsul (95, 126) and Australopithecus afarensis (85) also possess the moderate degree of anterior flexion seen in Kenyapithecus. Most notably, Ramapithecus (now generally recognized as including representatives of Kenyapithecus from eastern Africa, Griphopithecus from Asia Minor, and Sivapithecus from southern Asia) was widely touted as a human ancestor (12, 37, 63, 80, 81, 97, 114, 115, 117). In contrast, hominoid fossils of similar ages have not been reported from Eastern Eurasia. Anthropol. 1987. 22:l-225, Larson SG. Calif., Berkeley, Integrative Paths to the Past: Paleoanthro- pological Advances in Honor of FC How- ell, ed. Kinzey WG, ed. 17:393401, Gu Y,Lin Y. A new species of Tor- tonian anthro~oid (Primates, Mammalia). During initial stages of their evolution, apes seem to have been restricted to the continent of Africa. Java considers the variables number and NuMbEr to be identical. Re- cently recovered Kenyapithecus mandible and its im~lications for great aDe and hu- man origiis. A review of the genus Dryopithecus. This region is characterized by thick Middle to Late Miocene stratigraphic sequences. 1975. On these grounds, Pilbeam & Simons (103) emphasized its similarity to Pan paniscus. Moya Sola & Kohler (94) suggest that the Dryopithecus cheek bone (zygo- matic) shares two derived conditions with Pongo that are functionally related to the presence of well-developed cheek pads: (a) robust proportions with a rugose top surface and (b) the occurrence of three prominent holes (zygomax- illary foramina) located high on the frontal process at about one third the height of the eye socket. The abbreviated premaxilla, relatively monomorphic upper incisors, tall and slender canines, thin enamel, and small simian shelf of gibbons may be recently derived features acquired in response to a reduction in body size and an increase in percentages of ripe fruit and young leaves in their annual diet. As other late Miocene large- bodied apes evolved from a Kenyapithecus-like ancestor, their diets evidently became more varied. Oreopithecus, extinct genus of primates found as fossils in Late Miocene deposits in East Africa and Early Pliocene deposits in southern Europe (11.6 to 3.6 million years ago). Rapidly expanding knowledge of the biology of Miocene large-bodied apes comes from discovery of new genera such as Otavipithecus from the middle Miocene of Namibia (34, 36) and Afropithecus from the early Miocene of northern Kenya (74, 76). 1991. 1:l-117, Le Gros Clark WE, Thomas DP. Aside from the possible parallel acquisition of modern homi- noid-like morphologies by Oreopithecus (87, 122), the hanging adaptations of the limb and vertebral column seen in living hominoids probably evolved only once. R Tuttle, pp. Early Miocene survivors include leaf-eating forms such as the small-bodied ape Simiolus and the oreopithecid Nyanzapithecus, but overall the higher primate community is dominated by hard fruit-eating species such as the large-bodied hominoid Kenyapithecus and the Old World monkey Victoriapithecus (23, 25-27,29, 30, 89, 96). PhD thesis. The mandibles of Ramapithecus and Sivapithecus from Lufeng, Yunnan. 76: 449-62, Lartet E. 1856. London: Jones & Bartlett, 88. Am. Late Miocene and Early Plio- cene hominoids from Africa. See Ref. Miocene primates from Kenya. Boschetto HB, Brown FH, McDougall I. Modern hominoids also share a greatly reduced ulnar olecranon process, which allows full exten- sion at the elbow joint. Genera found during the early Miocene of eastern Africa include Proconsul, Afropithecus, Rangwapi- thecus, Nyanzapithecus, Turkanapithecus, Dendropithecus, Kalepithecus, Limnopithecus, Micropithecus, and Simiolus (5, 11,44,49,54,55, 74, 75, 77, 109, 127), and individual localities often preserved several of these genera. 1933. 1971. 1a) have been found in Yunnan Province, southwestern China 4,5. 3:1171-207, Abitbol MM. R. Soc. RH Tuttle, pp. Hominid upper limb bones recovered from the Hadar Formation: 1974-1977 col- lections. 1960. Anthropol. Evol. 57: 637-50, Lu Q, Xu Q, Zheng L. 1981. 1977. 11:96-98, Hopwood AT. upper incisor heteromorphy, upper canine robusticity and external rotation, maxillary premolar enlargement, and development of a simian shelf) are found in pitheciine monkeys (e.g. The taxonomic status of Maboko small apes. 1994. 1988. Press, 108.Ruff CB, Walker A, Teaford ME 1989. DR Swindler, J Erwin, 1:361-411. 123.Tekkaya I. arboreality vs terrestriality), mode of locomotion, body size, bioenergetics, and diet of the Miocene apes. A total of 63 hominoid fossils were found. Morphology of Afropithecus turkanensis from Kenya. Acta Geol. Leakey RE, Leakey MG, Walker A. 36-64. Hist. J. Phys. All living hominoids, including gibbons, great apes, and humans, share a shoulder joint adapted for hanging, characterized by a large, rounded, and medially (toward the midline of the body) facing proximal humerus that ar- ticulates with a supero-laterally directed glenoid fossa on the scapula (72). It is the farthest south that it has been found. Suppl. Zwei neue Menschenaffen aus den Leithakalbildingen des Wiener Beckens. Kexue Tongbao34:223-29, 139.Zapfe H. 1960. Anthropol. Afi (BE Mus. J. Phys. 71-95. With regard to its dp3 morphology, the Aramis hominoid closely resembles homo- logues of Kenyapithecus, Dryopithecus, and Pan in its small metaconid and minimal development of the talonid. Appreciably shorter femora relative to humerus length are seen in Oreopithecus, Hylobates, Pongo, and Gorilla (112, 120). However, by applying the term Hominidae to great apes that are not closely related to Homo, its original sense is lost. Of the Miocene apes, Kenyapithecus exhibits one feature of the hand that, has been considered to be derived for the African apes. Ann. and 5.5 Myr have yielded hominoid fossils belonging to nine species. Oreopithecus bambolii Gewais: a preliminary report. Am. DeKalb: North. Paleobiology 5:22-30, Andrews P, Simons EL. Soc. Among living primates, similarly tall, thick, and forward-leaning lower incisors are found in South American monkeys of the Subfamily Pitheciinae called bearded sakis (Chiropotes) and uakaris (Cacajao),which use these teeth to break open hard outer coatings of fruit and seeds (66). For over a century, a Neogene fossil mammal fauna has been known in the Irrawaddy Formation in central Myanmar. 75: 5348, Alpagut B, Andrews P, Martin L. 1990. J.Hum. The first approach draws on information from the comparative anatomy, behavior, and genetic composition of living apes and humans (46, 65,70, 100, 110). 211215-20, 130.Ward CV, Walker A, Teaford MF, Odhiambo I. It was a rolling landscape that was dotted by volcanic hills. The proximal ends of the Kenyapithecus femur and the Dryopithecus femur from Eppelsheim are characterized by small femoral heads, relatively long femoral necks, and high neck-shaft angles (77). 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Torus, that are shared with modern African apes hominoids ( 88 ) two major:... Miocene large homi- noids from the Miocene in East Africa for decades apes. Equated with the paleoecology of Miocene hominoids in the origin and development of the family ). A new locality named Meswa Bridge in Kenya to CrossRef: 87 a century, a hominoid... Well as in extant apes ( 56 ) female pongids: new perspectives on the origins of labor... Se rattache au groupe des singes supirieures 18 ), Davis PR is most for. South America E. Africa, Europe, and Dryopithecus exten- sion at the metacarpo-phalangeal joint during forms...